Developmental Information

Developmental Information

Birth to 5 Months

Typically Developing Children Children with Down Syndrome
Reacts to sound
Turns head toward sound source
Watches face when parent speaks
Vocalizes (coos, laughs, giggles, cries, fusses)
Makes noise when talked to
Begins to blow bubbles with mouth
Fixes eyes on spoon or bottle
Anticipates feeding when sees bottle
Laughs when playing with toy
Localizes sound source/speaker
Reacts to sound occasionally
May not necessarily turn head toward sound source
May not necessarily watch face when parent speaks
Needs audiologist evaluation
Minimal vocalization (cries, fusses)
Ceases sounds when talked to

6 – 11 Months

Typically Developing Children Children with Down Syndrome
Understands some verbal commands (“no-no,” “sh” – quiet)
Understands gestures (“come here,” “look”)
Babbles (says “ba-ba-ba,” “ma-ma-ma”)
Waves “bye”
Tries to communicate by action or gestures
Points to objects and pictures
Tries to repeat sounds
Comprehends 10 – 15 words
Extends arms to be picked up
Sucks through a straw
Sits unsupported
Stands holding on
Chews solid foods
Seeks toys for appropriate play
May not demonstrate comprehension beyond “no-no”
May not babble until 10 – 12 months
Watches face when someone speaks
Localizes sound source/speaker

12 – 17 Months

Typically Developing Children Children with Down Syndrome
Produces 10 – 15 words
Produces animal sound(s)
Produces mostly nouns
Comprehends 50 – 100 words
Listens to simple stories
Responds to yes/no questions
Gives toy or object on request
Indicates displeasure when toy is removed
Gestures and vocalizes to indicate needs
Initiates vocalizations to others
Imitates familiar sounds and actions
Brings object to show others
Uses limited manual signs to communicate
Comprehends 8 – 10 words
Able to blow bubbles with mouth
Tries to communicate by action or gestures
Stands holding on (at around 12 months)
Chews semi-solid foods
Understands some verbal commands (“no-no,” “sh” – quiet)
Understands gestures (“come here,” “look”)
Waves “bye”

18 – 23 Months

Typically Developing Children Children with Down Syndrome
Produces 50 words
Produces most familiar objects
Says own name on request
Verbalizes “no”
Begins to use some verbs and adjectives
Beginning of two word phrases
Comprehends 300 words
Asks questions by raising intonation at end of phrase
Refers to self with pronoun
Points to toes, eyes, and nose
Follows simple one step commands
Acknowledges others by eye contact, responding, or repeating
Identifies by pointing
Comprehends 15 – 20 words
Sucks through a straw
Chews solid foods
Walks (at around 18 months)
Seeks toy for appropriate play
Listens to simple stories being read
Indicates displeasure when toy is removed
Gestures and vocalizes to indicate needs
Points to objects and pictures
Tries to repeat sounds developmental information

24 – 35 Months

Typically Developing Children Children with Down Syndrome
May omit final consonants
Consonants mastered: p, m, n, w, h
Produces 200 – 500 intelligible words
Answers “where” and “what” questions
Uses “a” and “an” in sentences
Uses regular plurals (dog – dogs)
Some pronouns emerging
Uses some three and four word sentences
Comprehends 500 – 900 words
Listens to longer stories
Carries out two stage commands
Understands concept of first
Comprehends 25 – 40 words
40% will have oral motor deficits similar to dysphasia
Gives toy or object on request
Initiates vocalizations to others
Imitates familiar sounds and actions
Produces animal sound(s)
Brings objects to show others
Acknowledges others by eye contact, responding, or repeating

36 – 47 Months

Typically Developing Children Children with Down Syndrome
Uses 800 intelligible words
Consonants mastered: b, d, k, g, f, y
Comprehends 1,200 words
Listens to 20-minute stories
Matches colors
Knows in/on/under; big/little
Developed routines for bedtime
Answers “who, why, where, how many questions”
Asks simple questions (what’s that?)
Repeats sentence of six or seven syllables
Engages in short dialogues
Uses language in imaginative ways
Requests for clarifications
Narratives are heaps: collection of unrelated ideas
Produces first 10 – 15 words
Dysphasia group produces only a single word
Comprehends 50 – 75 words
Says own name on request
Verbalizes “no”
Points to toes, eyes, and nose
Follows simple one step commands
Listens to simple stories
Responds to yes/no questions
Gives toy or object on request

48 – 59 Months

Typically Developing Children Children with Down Syndrome
Very intelligible speech
Recognizes most primary colors
Counts 10 objects
Repeats four digits
Uses “what do… does” questions
Comprehends 2,500 words
Classifies according shape, color
Uses 1,500- 2,000 words
Asks meaning of words
Tells long stories
Uses terms such as this, that, here, there
Narratives: unfocused – sequence of events but no central character of theme
Recognizes icon symbols like McDonald’s arches, stop sign
Comprehends 100 – 500 words
Produces 20 – 30 intelligible words
Produces most familiar objects
Dysphasia group produces most vowel and some back consonants: k, g
May omit final consonants
Answers simple questions
Limited sound/symbol associations
Listens to longer stories
Carries out two stage commands
Understands concept of first
Beginning of two word phrases
Asks questions by raising intonation at end of phrase

60 – 71 Months

Typically Developing Children Children with Down Syndrome
Consonants mastered: t, ing, r, l
Comprehends 13,000 words
Understands opposites
Understands more/less, some/many, several/few, most/least, before/after, now/later
Knows half and whole
Counts 12 – 20 objects
Names letters of alphabet
Knows first, second, third
Names days of week
Uses all pronouns
Uses comparatives (bigger) and superlatives (biggest)
Uses 6 – 7 word sentences
Narratives: focused – central character with logical sequence but ending is unclear
Reads 15 – 20 words
Uses 3 – 4 word sentences
Produces 100 – 400 intelligible words
Comprehends 500 – 900 words
Dysphasia group produces many omitted sounds in initial, medial, and final word positions
Non-dysphasic group produces substitutions and distortions of fricatives (f, v, s, z, sh, ch, zh)
Uses “a” and “an” in sentences
Recognizes most primary colors
Counts 10 objects
Uses some verbs and adjectives
Refers to self with pronoun
Uses regular plurals (dog – dogs)
Uses some pronouns
Asks simple questions
Engages in short dialogues